Tuesday, August 4, 2015

Identity, Likert and STEM Education

(http://www.excal.on.ca/facets-of-black-identity/)

My job at the moment is to help improve the structure of computing education across the United States with a particular focus on broadening participation.  In the federal lexicon, broadening participation means increasing the number of students of color and people with disabilities who have access to the STEM enterprise generally and to computing in particular.  The effort to improve STEM education is real and laudable and there is a long list of people sounding the clarion call for educational and occupational equity in the 21st century.  The effort, however, appears wholly disconnected from the historical context and contemporary reality that makes it necessary in the first place.  Many of the proposed solutions I see are various creative forms of exposure.  Expose our students to computing, get them engaged and feeling good about themselves and they will pursue computing, or STEM fields of some kind. Feeling good about themselves – or in academic speak, demonstrating a statistically significant increase in their sense of self-efficacy – is at the heart of the disconnection.  I do not see in these efforts an attempt to educate our students about themselves, about the nature of their identity as black and brown children and the relationship of that identity to the condition they find themselves in.  Creative means of exposure to computing, often by well meaning white academicians, misses the need for a deep-seated reason to learn. The identities of black students cannot be measured on a simple Likert scale of self-efficacy. To assume that it can be is an oversight born of the limited vision of privilege.

Over the past several months, it struck me that there was no conversation in my workplace about the nearly monthly murder of black people at the hands of police.  No discussion, no commentary, no lament, about the possible effects that all this brutality, death, rage and urban uprising might have on the very students we are purportedly out to help.  There was no consideration about the context in which our young people’s identities are being forged.  Hardly any interpretation was offered about the factors that affect their decisions about their futures beyond the narrow consideration of the availability of appropriate STEM courses.  Our STEM agenda appeared perfectly isolated from the racial tempest brewing in the country, particularly in the urban centers where black and Hispanic students often live.

This summer, tired of the innumerable reports on the need for more STEM graduates and broadening participation, I read books about black history and identity.  I read the Book of Negroes by Lawrence Hill. I read A Copper Sun by Sharon Draper and The Warmth of Other Suns by Isabel Wilkerson.  I read Just Mercy by Bryan Stevenson and The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander. I read Between the World and Me by Te-Nehisi Coates.  In addition, I read a lot about the stubborn proportion of black young people who are poor, nearly 40 percent.  I read about the increasing segregation in the country’s most populous cities.  Atlanta where I live, and Washington DC where I work, are the number 2 and 6 most segregated cities in the United States.  What all of this reinforced for me is that without dealing with the ugly reality of race such as it is, we cannot make significant headway towards meeting our larger STEM goals. Our tinkering around the margins will certainly allow for satisfaction and some release from guilt, depending on which side of the line you stand, but it will not substantively move the needle. 

Dealing with race does not mean that STEM educators and policy makers need to solve the American race problem.  It does mean that reducing the complexity, honor and terror of black and Hispanic students’ experiences to a Likert scale of self-efficacy is an insulting pretense of concern.  The programs for sustained learning in STEM fields will likely only be effective if they are complemented by teaching students about themselves, about the context of their education, about the profiteering on their backs, about their extraordinary potential and the legacy they represent.  Their motivation and true self-efficacy has to come from a deep appreciation of themselves.  It cannot come from a week-long summer platter of exposure.

Herein lies an opportunity for the well-intentioned of the STEM world to collaborate with the hardened historical realists of the race world – the real world.  The enormity of the challenge is such that no one who is truly concerned can afford to crumble in the face of the personal difficulties and vulnerability that confronting race directly will mean.  Now we, the STEM practitioners and advocates, will have to be exposed.  How does looking at American race affect our self-efficacy?  What happens when Ta-Nehisi hands the Likert scale back to Likert?

kamau


2 comments:

policyprovocateur said...

I used to study self-efficacy as a measure related to the use of contraception. It's an interesting concept but it is not meant to measure identity. Nor does it reflect a 'deep appreciation of oneself'.

Does the 'deep-seated reason to learn' have to come from your STEM program or should your folks just 'stay in their lane'? You may be better suited than most to address that need and to do it outside of systems that are not equipped or prepared to do what it is you want them to do. It would seem that the broader context you are discussing is outside the purview of STEM folks at NSF. I like the idea of 'deep appreciation' of oneself. It is a worthy pursuit. But in my experience of humans it usually occurs long long past the psychological and emotional turbulence that is adolescence, or even young adulthood. Instead it seems to be the pursuit of midlife adults seeking meaning and understanding about their lives. Thus it is not a requirement for motivation or whatever it is you mean by 'true self-efficacy'. At the most, it is a luxury of time and reflection and the pursuit of self-knowledge. At the least, it is something that few of us ever attain.

You will always be a 'deep brother'. And expecting anyone else to go on a reading spree like you did, is unrealistic. I dont think that offering STEM courses is 'tinkering around the margins' because what we DO know about factors that impact decision-making about the future is that people only choose options they know exist. And thus exposure, 'permission' to dream, and the validation/acknowledgement that STEM is a real/viable/high-income choice does impact what these kids choose to do with their lives. Everyone can't do everything. And the swim coach can teach competence in swimming without teaching identity, and have a child grow up with the confidence of knowing that they can control their bodies and push their limits. It is the beauty of sport. And the beauty of education, especially that of science and math, frees ones mind to go beyond the now and the 'real' and allows competence to build self-efficacy (which is simply a belief in one's abilities). Not every domain needs to be fully and explicitly embedded with the conversation of race to have a positive impact on youth of color.

On another note, I think you've always had another calling and sooner or later you will find yourself there. In the meantime, I think in your current work you perhaps are tinkering with the margins of your own heart and mind, and these ideas you have about the role of STEM educators is really about the role of you. And not some broader group of people who will never see the world through your eyes or your very well-read mind. I don't think working in places like this satisfies you, nor will it. They serve a purpose but you want more. So go do more. Peace and love x.

The Truth Helps said...

It makes perfect sense to me that White academics would focus on self-efficacy with respect to Black and Brown students. Maybe they are finally coming to a realization that schools are the primary institutions that perpetuate racism. American has a talent for undermining groups that are non-white, especially African Americans. The narrative continues that Blacks are intellectually inferior to Whites. Barely two weeks ago, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Scalia stated "that it does not benefit African-Americans to get them into the University of Texas, where they do not do well — as opposed to having them go to a less advanced school, a slower-track school where they do well." His comments are unjust and ignorant because the data clearly shows that college completion is based more on socio-economic status than cognitive abilities.

If racial minorities lack confidence in their abilities, it is likely because of the historical and present-day social and financial conditions that plague their communities. Environment impacts aspirations. Therefore, the question should not be "How can we make them feel good about themselves in spite of their horrible conditions?" The right question is "What can we do to improve their conditions and correct the wrongs of our ancestors?"

I strongly believe that we need to become students of our history to strengthen our self-identity. As a group, we are to be pitied if reading five or six books is too much of a burden to bear to counteract the negative messages this county has been feeding us for centuries. It is realistic to read. A lack of knowledge of self is one of the reasons why we continue to suffer in this country. They will continue to define us less than until we learn to define ourselves.

"If I didn't define myself for myself, I would be crunched into other people's fantasies for me and eaten alive." Audre Lorde